Classification and principle of car speakers

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Classification and principle of car speakers

                               Classification and principle of car horns

Car horns are divided into air horns and electric horns according to the sound power; according to their shape, they are divided into three types: cylindrical, spiral and basin; according to the sound frequency, they are divided into two types: tweeter and woofer.

air horn

The working principle of the air horn is to use the airflow of compressed air to vibrate the metal diaphragm to make sound, so it must be used above the car with an air compressor. Generally, air horns are installed on buses and heavy trucks. Especially when long-distance transport vehicles are driving in mountainous areas or curves, using air horns can effectively remind pedestrians and other drivers. Because the volume of the air horn is large, the residual sound is good, and the sound is pleasant and spreads far. Air horns are generally cylindrical, and use two speakers, a tweeter and a woofer, to work together.

Electric horn

The working principle of the electric horn is to use the electromagnetic suction to make the metal diaphragm vibrate to produce sound. It is a kind of horn widely used in automobiles. According to the structure, it is divided into three types: cylindrical, spiral and basin. Generally, it is usually made into a spiral or a basin.

The commonly used electric horns can be divided into two types: mechanical and electronic according to their working methods. Among them, electronic speakers are divided into two types: contact type and non-contact type. The contact-type electric horn uses the closing and opening of the contacts to control the on-off of the excitation current in the electromagnetic coil, so that the iron core (or armature) moves up and down at a certain frequency. And the working metal diaphragm vibrates to produce sound. The non-contact electric horn uses electronic circuits to control the on-off of the excitation current in the electromagnetic coil, so that the iron core moves at a certain frequency, and drives the metal diaphragm to vibrate to produce sound.

Electric speakers have the advantages of convenient energy, simple structure, small size, low quality, low noise, easy maintenance, loud sound and pleasant sound quality.

The non-contact electric horn is more durable because it overcomes the shortcomings of the contact ablation and oxidation of the contact-type electric horn, which makes the horn sound. And its tone and volume are easier to adjust than the contact type, so it is the development direction of car speakers.

1. Spiral electric horn

Through the continuous vibration of the diaphragm, a sound wave of a certain tone is emitted, and the sound is reinforced through the soundboard and the speaker. The soundboard is rigidly connected to the diaphragm, and it emits accompanying sound when it vibrates, enhancing the volume and improving the timbre, making the sound pleasing to the ear. A capacitor is connected in parallel between the contacts. It has the functions of extinguishing the arc, protecting the contacts, and improving the sound.

2. Basin-shaped electric horn

Its working principle is the same as that of the spiral electric horn, and the structure is basically the same, except that there is no speaker, and the sound is transmitted after resonating by the soundboard. In addition, the magnetic circuit adopts solenoid type electromagnets instead of E-type iron cores. ...

Written: Davecl Audio

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